Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Technology <p>Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Technology (PakJET)<em>&nbsp;</em>is a peer-reviewed, scientific, and technical journal owned and published by the Faculty of Engineering and Technology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan<em>.&nbsp;</em>PakJET&nbsp;publishes high-quality original scientific articles dealing with the use of analytic and quantitative tools for the modeling, analysis, design and engineering management in the Engineering and technology disciplines. The <strong>scope</strong> of the journal falls in all fields of&nbsp;<strong>Electrical, Electronics, Civil, Mechanical, Biomedical, Software and Computer Engineering</strong>.&nbsp; <strong>The journal does not charge any Article Processing Charges (APCs)/fee for the publication and submission of the articles.</strong></p> Faculty of Engineering and Technology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Technology 2664-2042 <h3>COPYRIGHT POLICY</h3> <p>UOL journals follow an <strong>open-access</strong> publishing policy and full text of all articles is available free, immediately upon acceptance. Articles are published and distributed under the terms of the CC BY-SA 4.0 International License. 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After publication of the article, it may be posted anywhere with full journal citation included.</p> <p>All articles published in UOL journals are <strong>open-access</strong> articles, published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits remixing, transformation, or building upon the material, provided the original work is appropriately cited mentioning the authors and the publisher, as well as the produced work is distributed under the same license as the original.</p> <p>In the future, UOL may reproduce printed copies of articles in any form. Without prejudice to the terms of the license given below, we retain the right to reproduce author's articles in this way.</p> <h3>Brief Summary Of The License Agreement</h3> <p>By submitting your research article(s) to UOL Journal(s), you agree to Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which states that:</p> <p>Anyone is free:</p> <p>o To copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format<br>o To remix, transform, or build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially</p> <p>Provided:</p> <p>o The author and the publisher have been appropriately credited<br>o The link to license is provided<br>o Indicated if any changes were made<br>o The material produced is distributed under the same license as the original</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Graphical User Interface-Based Detection of Kidney Stones Using Image Segmentation Techniques <p>The exponential increase in detrimental surroundings and unhealthy nourishments is causing various health issues in humans. The most destructive effect of such lifestyles is on the kidneys, which cause many kidney diseases, and the most common among them are kidney stones. Kidney stones are a regular but life-threatening disease as they mostly remain unrecognized at the initial stages, leading to an increased threat of end-stage kidney failure. Due to the high recurring rate, Medical Imaging technologies are of paramount importance in detecting this serious public health threat worldwide. This research paper provides a Graphical User Interface for the detection of kidney stones that enables ease of understanding and point-and-click control of the algorithm in MATLAB. The proposed work uses CT scan images to explore image processing techniques due to their reliability and regularity. The algorithm enhances kidney stone screening by improving image quality and focusing on the region of interest. This study highlights the best solutions of imaging techniques to resolve problems like grainy pixels, low-resolution images, and the inaccurate detection of kidney stones due to size and resemblance with nearby parts. All this begins with examining the medical imaging slices from the body area, which later undergoes preprocessing, segmentation, and boundary detection techniques. To check the accuracy of the algorithm, 12 features were extracted using GLCM. Finally, the obtained features were classified using the Classification Designer App in MATLAB. An accuracy of 99.2% was acquired using Ensemble Classifiers. Also, for further progress in the detection of kidney stones in the future, an AI model can be trained so that it can deal with images having different thresholds for better management of the disease.</p> Khadijah Ali Shah Zohaib Mushtaq Syed Muddasir Hussain Muhammad Haris Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 6 3 1 7 10.51846/vol6iss3pp1-7 Comparison of Techno-Economic Models for Upgrading PV System without Net-Metering Option and Long Term Impact on Energy Bills <p>This article presents a techno-economic analysis of upgrading a Photovoltaic (PV) power system at large. A comparative study has been carried out considering various technical and economic factors like per unit cost, annual load, energy demand growth, and PV panel efficiency, annual performance degradation of system, cost of electricity, payback period, initial capital expenditure, and rate of return in the form of saving in energy bills. The PV system is proposed to be upgraded from 1 MW to 2 MW at the National University of Sciences &amp; Technology (NUST), Islamabad. The PV system is subject to be upgraded due to the growth rate of annual load and amount saved by PV contribution, which has been forecasted using data trends of the above-mentioned technical and economic factors. While considering these factors, four economic models have been evaluated and compared, which include Self-Built via Contractor with self-financing, Self-Built with bank financing, Power purchase agreement (PPA), also known as rental agreement and Built, Own, Operate &amp; Transfer (BOOT) model. Merits and demerits of these models have been discussed, and the most feasible model has been proposed based on the mentioned key factors and long-term sustainable development goals (SDG) for affordable clean energy to contribute to climate action, i.e., adaptation of renewable energy resources (RER) and reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG).</p> Arslan Ahmed Syed Ali Abbas Kazmi Mustafa Anwar Adeel Waqas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 6 3 16 24 10.51846/vol6iss3pp16-24 To Control the Speed of a DC Motor Using a Specially Designed PID Algorithm <p>This work presents the design and implementation of a circuit that uses a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller to control the revolutions per minute (RPM) of the direct current (DC) motor in real time that uses a microcontroller platform. The algorithm used in the microcontroller was the algebraic equations of the general PID controller equation. The paper discusses the structure of a PID algorithm and its implementation. From the algebraic equations, the error, cumulative error, and delta error of the PID controller have been found. The designed algorithm is implemented using the Arduino software (IDE). The aim of this work is to control the speed (RPM) of the DC motor using the PID design technique. The designed control system circuit is affordable. The system is tested in real-time, steady-state error, and response time is inspected successfully. The designed circuit is tested for various speed inputs satisfactorily. The speed control using PI and PID control methodology is described.</p> Haseeb Ahmad Abdullah Zubair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 6 3 25 33 10.51846/vol6iss3pp25-33 A Review of Real-Time Monitoring of Hybrid Energy Systems by Using Artificial Intelligence and IoT <p>This research focuses on the invention of real-time monitoring of hybrid energy systems using artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT). The study aims to develop a monitoring system that provides real-time insights, anomaly detection, fault diagnosis, and energy optimization. The research methodology involves the integration of AI algorithms and IoT devices to collect, analyze, and visualize system data. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed monitoring system in improving system performance, sustainability, and cost savings. The practical implementation and scalability of the system are also addressed, along with future research opportunities. This research contributes to the advancement of monitoring systems for hybrid energy applications, promoting efficiency and sustainability in energy management. This research provides significant contributions to the field of real-time monitoring of hybrid energy systems. The article focuses on addressing key problems related to the real-time monitoring of hybrid energy systems using AI and IoT technologies. The lack of real-time insights provided by conventional methods also limits timely decision-making and responsiveness to dynamic changes in the system.</p> Zuhaib Nishtar Jamil Afzal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-21 2023-09-21 6 3 8 15 10.51846/vol6iss3pp8-15 Quick Response Code Technology-based Contact Tracing Solutions to Mitigate Epidemic Outbreaks: A Review <p>Several epidemics and pandemics have plagued humanity over the years; however, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic revealed humanity's lack of preparedness for epidemics and pandemic outbreaks. Although several approaches have been proposed, designed, and implemented during and post-COVID-19 by researchers to deal with future epidemic outbreaks, there is a need for lightweight technology solutions to develop technology-based contact tracing (TCT) solutions. Quick response (QR) codes can be considered a lightweight technology as they provide environmentally friendly solutions with flexible applications across industries. They also enable contactless interactions and transactions, which is essential for the health and safety of users in the event of an epidemic. To the best of our knowledge, there exists a few pieces of literature that solely discuss and review the QR code-based TCT solutions adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, this work explores the QR code for its potential and use as a TCT approach. On this premise, this review discusses factors influencing QR code-based CT and further discusses existing QR code-based techniques for mitigating epidemic outbreaks. Additionally, the hybridization of QR code-based techniques with other TCT solutions has limited discussions that solely focus on QR code-based techniques; as such, QR code-based techniques are compared against other technologies adopted for TCT. The review recommends possible solutions to address the challenges in utilizing QR code-based solutions as it concludes the review.</p> Agburu O. Adikpe Ezekiel E. Agbon Abdulkadir M. Giwa Habib T. Adeyemo Moses A. Adegoke Franklin C. Njoku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 6 3 34 43 10.51846/vol6iss3pp34-43